To develop your photography you must unlearn the lesson that blurry photographs are bad. It is deeply ingrained into us that all photos should be in focus and that blur is negative. In fact deliberate blur is a vital weapon in the professional photographer’s arsenal. It allows you to covey movement and masks distracting background elements. Understand the deliberate uses of blur and your photos will stand out. This guide will help you to improve your shots by using different kinds of blur.
Courtesy of Martin Fisch
When you see photographs of dancers or sports people they are almost always frozen with a blast of flash. Sometimes this works well by capturing a vital moment or beautiful shape. Other times it looks artificial and doesn’t convey what was happening at the time. Instead of relying on flash, take original photos of moving subjects by capturing their motion on film.
Record motion blur by keeping your camera still and leaving the shutter open to record any movement. This technique will give you flowing patterns but no point of focus. You will need a tripod or a firm surface to support the camera. A shutter speed of about a second is a good place to start but the exact exposure time depends on the speed of the subject. Use this technique to record dancers and even the movement of fish in an aquarium, or cars on a road at night.
Panning allows you to keep a moving subject in focus and blur the background. It gives photos a strong sense of motion. Pan by moving the camera parallel to subject at the same speed as it is moving. Use a shutter speed between 1/15 of a second and 2 seconds, depending on the speed of the subject. You won’t get perfect focus but provided the subject is more in focus than the background, the results are effective. Use panning to record moving people, vehicles and animals.
Courtesy of Fabian Mohr
Some photographs work best if they are completely defocused. For example a defocused shot of a child on a beach in the late afternoon light expresses nostalgia perfectly. Photographs with strong repeating patterns, such as tree trunks in a forest, can be defocused for a painterly effect. Zooming with a telephoto lens during a long exposure can also create interesting defocused effects.
Courtesy of Paul Hocksenar
Use a shallow depth-of-field to throw the background of your photos out of focus. This isolates your subject and makes it stand out. This technique works well for small subjects such as flowers and leaves. You can also use a shallow depth-of-field to draw the attention to draw attention to a portrait subject’s eyes. Blur can also give your photos a sense of depth if you include out-of-focus foreground elements in your compositions.
Bokeh is a photographic term that describes the aesthetic qualities of a defocused background. If your background is defocused with attractive colours and no obvious detail, it has good bokeh. Bad bokeh is where a background is distracting or clashes with the colours of your subject. Get good bokeh in your shots by using a very shallow depth of field of 3.5 or less. This will reduce details to an even, creamy blur, and turn background lights into large, defocused circular or polygonal shapes.
Courtesy of Chris Gerty
The zoom burst, or zoom blur, effect is a simple and fun photographic effect that I’ve been asked about many times. This tutorial will walk you through the technique and, with a little practice, even beginners can nail it.
…is straightforward: manually adjust the focal length of the lens as you take the photo, which will lend an abstract quality and exaggerated sense of motion and depth to the subject and surroundings (there’s just a tiny bit more too it than that, as I will explain.)
Courtesy of Joe King
What You’ll Need
- Tripod or an image stabilized camera or lens and very steady hands
- A camera that allows manual adjustment of shutter speed and aperture
- A lens that can be manually zoomed
A DSLR camera and lens are best for this technique, but some point and shoot cameras offer manual settings and zoom adjustments as the photo is taken. Please consult your manual.
Before you take a zoom burst photo, you’ll need to adjust your shutter speed and aperture. First, select a speed that is slow enough to give you time to adjust the focal length of your lens during the shot. Because you are using a slow shutter speed, more light will reach your sensor so, to prevent overexposure, select a higher aperture number. Shutter speeds and aperture settings will differ from photo to photo but, as a starting point, try a shutter speed of 1 second and an aperture that is one number higher than what your camera’s light meter suggests. You can adjust from there to get the results you want.
Courtesy of BIll Dickinson
Taking the Shot
There are several approaches to zoom burst photography, all of which begin the same way: Zoom in fully on your subject and lock focus (depress the shutter half way). If your camera offers exposure lock, set that, too. From there, you can:
- Squeeze the shutter fully to take the picture while manually zooming out.
- Zoom out as widely as you want to capture and squeeze the shutter while zooming in.
- Zoom out partially, squeeze the shutter and zoom in or out.
- Squeeze the shutter and rotate your camera while you zoom in or out.
You get the idea. The variations are endless. Experiment with each method until you find one that gives you the most desirable effect. Just remember to zoom as smoothly as possible, maintaining a consistent speed through the end of the exposure.
What if I Can’t Adjust the Focal Length During the Shot?
Some cameras don’t allow manual adjustment of focal lengths during a shot. If this is your situation, you are not out of luck; you can still get the shot with a little extra effort and some patience. Here’s how: Keeping your hands extra steady, move your camera forward or back during the shot. Keep trying until you get a great zoom burst shot.
Courtesy of Tao Zero
Here are a few more tips to help you get the best zoom burst shot, no matter what camera equipment you have.
- If you are having difficulty getting the right aperture settings, experiment in low light to reduce the chances of overexposure.
- Keep the speed at which you adjust the focal length steady throughout the shot. Don’t start out slow and then move fast, for example, which could ruin the shot.
- If using flash, set it off at the beginning or end (called second curtain, or slow sync, flash) of the shot to add an interesting lighting effect.
- Try briefly pausing halfway through the zoom to create an effect that looks as though time stopped for a brief moment.
The beauty of digital cameras is that you can practice effects like zoom burst without worrying about wasting film and you can see the results almost instantly. Try different shutter speed and aperture settings, as well as different shooting locations and subjects to master this technique. In no time you will be a zoom burst master, ready to move on to another exciting special photography effect. Happy shooting!